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What is the difference between 5-axis CNC machining and 3-axis CNC machining?

May 21 , 2021

What is the difference between 5-axis CNC machining and 3-axis CNC machining?


Three-axis CNC machining, X-axis left and right, Y-axis front and back, and Z-axis up and down.

Five-axis CNC machining is to add two rotary axes to the three common linear axes of X, Y, and Z. The two rotating shafts of the A, B, and C three axes have different motion modes.


In summary, there are various types of five-axis machine tools currently on the market. Although there are various mechanical structures, there are mainly the following forms:

1. Two rotating coordinates directly control the direction of the tool axis (double swing head form)

2. The two coordinate axes are at the top of the tool, but the rotation axis is not perpendicular to the linear axis (pitch type swing head type)

3. Two rotating coordinates directly control the rotation of the space (double turntable form)

4. The two coordinate axes are on the worktable, but the rotation axis is not perpendicular to the linear axis (pitching worktable)

5. One of the two rotation coordinates acts on the tool and the other acts on the workpiece (one swing and one rotation)


Seeing this, we also have a general understanding of what and how the five-axis CNC machining is moving. So what is the difference between them?


Commonly used machining centers are mostly three-axis machining, but five-axis CNC machining has the following advantages compared to three-axis machining.

1. Maintain the best cutting condition of the five-axis machining center tool, effectively improving the cutting conditions

2. It can effectively avoid tool interference

3. In actual processing, reduce benchmark conversion, ensure processing accuracy, shorten the overall processing chain, use fewer tools and fixtures, and reduce processing costs. Five-axis CNC machining can use tool side cutting to improve machining efficiency and simplify production management. For the formation of workpieces with high auxiliary precision requirements, the research and development cycle is greatly shortened, and the machining tasks are completed with high flexibility and high precision. .

4. Can shorten the product development cycle

5. It can reduce the number of fixtures and the area occupied. Although the price of a single piece of equipment of the machining center machine tool is relatively high, due to the shortening of the process chain and the reduction of the number of equipment, the number of fixtures, workshop area and equipment maintenance costs are also reduced, thereby reducing the overall investment in fixed assets, Cost of production operation and management


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